This section describes the adverse conditions that weaken slow, or even kill characters. If more than one condition affects a character, apply them all. If certain effects can't combine, apply the most severe effect. For example, a character who is dazed and confused takes no actions whatsoever (dazed is more severe than confused). The confused character might want to attack a random character, but he can't because he's dazed.
Ability Damaged: The character has temporarily lost 1 or more ability score points. These points return at a rate of 1 per day. Ability damage is different from effective ability loss, which is an effect that goes away when the condition causing it (fatigue, entanglement, etc.) goes away. A character with Strength 0 falls to the ground and is helpless. A character with Dexterity 0 is paralyzed. A character with Constitution 0 is dead. A character with Intelligence, Wisdom, or Charisma 0 is unconscious. (See Ability Score Loss)
Ability Drained: The character has permanently lost 1 or more ability score points. The character can only regain these points through magical means. A character with Strength 0 falls to the ground and is helpless. A character with Dexterity 0 is paralyzed. A character with Constitution 0 is dead. A character with Intelligence, Wisdom, or Charisma o is unconscious. (See Ability Score Loss.)
Blinded: The character cannot see at all, and thus everything has full concealment to him. He has a 50% chance to miss in combat, loses his positive Dexterity bonus to AC (if any), and grants a +2 bonus on attack rolls to enemies that attack him, just as if all his enemies were invisible. He moves at half speed and suffers a -4 penalty on most Strength and Dexterity-based skills. He cannot make Spot skill checks or perform any other activity (such as reading) that requires vision. Characters who remain blinded for a long time grow accustomed to these drawbacks and can overcome some of them (DM's discretion).
Blown Away: Depending on their size, creatures can be blown away by winds of high velocity (see Wind Effects). Creatures on the ground that are blown away are knocked down and rolled 1d4X10 feet, sustaining 1d4 points of subdual damage per 10 feet. Flying creatures that are blown away are blown back 2d6x10 feet and sustain 2d6 points of subdual damage due to bartering and buffering.
Checked: Prevented from achieving forward motion by an applied force, such as wind. Checked creatures on the ground merely stop. Checked flying creatures move back a distance specified in the description of the specific effect.
Confused: A confused character's actions are determined by a 1d10 roll, rerolled each round: 1: wander away (unless prevented) for 1 minute (and don't roll for another random action until the minute is up); 2-6: do nothing for 1 round; 7-9: attack the nearest creature for 1 round; 10: act normally for 1 round. Any confused creature who is attacked automatically attacks her attackers on her next turn.
Cowering: The character is frozen in fear, loses her Dexterity bonus to AC (if any), and can take no actions. Foes gain a +2 bonus to hit cowering characters.
Dazed: A dazed creature can take no actions (but defends itself normally). A dazed condition typically lasts 1 round.
Dazzled: Unable to see well because of over-stimulation of the eyes. A dazzled creature suffers a -1 penalty on attack rolls until the effect ends.
Dead: The character's soul leaves his body permanently or until he is raised or resurrected. A dead body decays, but magic that allows a dead character to come back to life restores the body either to full health or to its condition at the time of death (depending on the spell or device). Either way resurrected characters need not worry about rigor mortis, decomposition, and other similar sorts of unpleasantness. A dead character cannot regain hit points.
Deafened: A deafened character cannot hear, suffers a -4 penalty to initiative checks, and has a 20% chance of spell failure when casting spells with verbal components. He cannot make Listen skill checks. Characters who remain deafened for a long time grow accustomed to these drawbacks and can overcome some of them (DM's discretion).
Disabled: A character with 0 hit points, or one who bas negative hit points but has stabilized and then improved, is disabled. He is conscious and able to act but horribly wounded. He can take only a partial action each round, and if he performs any strenuous action, he takes 1 point of damage after the completing the act. Strenuous actions include running, attacking, casting a spell, or using any ability that requires physical exertion or mental concentration. Unless the strenuous action increased the character's hit points, he is now dying.
A disabled character with negative hit points recovers hit points naturally if he is being helped. Otherwise, each day he has a 10% chance to start recovering hit points naturally (starting with that day); otherwise, he loses 1 hit point. Once an unaided character starts recovering hit points naturally he is no longer in danger of losing hit points (even if his current hit points are negative).
Dying: A dying character has negative hit points. She is unconscious and near death. At the end of each round (starting with the round in which the character dropped below 0 hit points), her player rolls d% to see whether she stabilizes. She has a 10% chance to become stable. If she doesn't stabilize, she loses 1 hit point.
Energy Drained: The character gains one or more negative levels. If the subject has at least as many negative levels as Hit Dice, he dies. Each negative level gives a creature the following penalties: -1 competence penalty on attack tolls, saving throws, skill checks, ability checks, and effective level (for determining the power, duration, DC, and other details of spells or special abilities). Additionally a spellcaster loses one spell or spell slot from her highest available level. Negative levels stack.
Entangled: An entangled creature suffers a -2 penalty to attack rolls and a -4 penalty to effective Dexterity. If the bonds are anchored to an immobile object, the entangled character cannot move. Otherwise, he can move at half speed, but can't run or charge. An entangled character who attempts to cast a spell must make a Concentration check (DC usually 15) or lose the spell.
Exhausted: Characters who are exhausted move at half normal speed and suffer an effective penalty of -6 to Strength and Dexterity. A fatigued character becomes exhausted by doing something else that would normally cause fatigue. After 1 hour of complete rest, exhausted characters become fatigued.
Fatigued: Characters who are fatigued cannot run or charge and suffer an effective penalty of -2 to Strength and Dexterity. A fatigued character becomes exhausted by doing something else that would normally cause fatigue. After 8 hours of complete rest, fatigued characters are no longer fatigued.
Flat-Footed: A character who has not yet acted during a combat is flat-footed, nor yet reacting normally to the situation. A flat-footed character loses his Dexterity bonus to AC (if any).
Frightened: A creature that is frightened flees as well as it can. If unable to flee, the creature may fight. It suffers a -2 morale penalty on attack tolls, weapon damage rolls, and saving throws. A frightened creature can use special abilities, including spells, to flee; indeed, the creature must use such means if they are the only way to escape.
Frightened is like shaken, except that the creature must flee, if possible. Panicked is a more extreme condition of fear.
Grappled: Engaged in wrestling or some other form of hand-to-hand struggle with one or more attackers. A grappled character cannot move, cast a spell, fire a missile, or undertake any action more complicated than making a barehanded attack, attacking with a Small weapon, or attempting to break free from the opponent. In addition, grappled characters do not threaten any area and lose any Dexterity bonuses to AC against opponents they aren't grappling.
Held: Held characters are subject to enchantments that make them unable to move. They are helpless. They can perform no physical actions (but they continue to breathe and can take purely mental actions).
Helpless: Bound, held, sleeping, paralyzed, or unconscious characters are helpless. Enemies can make advantageous attacks against helpless characters, or even deliver a usually lethal coup de grace.
A melee attack against a helpless character is at a +4 bonus on the attack toll (equivalent to attacking a prone target). A ranged attack gets no special bonus. A helpless defender can't use any Dexterity bonus to AC. In fact, his Dexterity score is treated as if it were 0 and his Dexterity modifier to AC were -5 (and a rogue can sneak attack him).
As a full-round action (allowing no move other than a 5-foot step), an enemy can use a melee weapon to deliver a coup de grace to a helpless foe. An enemy can also use a bow or crossbow, provided he is adjacent to the target. The attacker automatically hits and scores a critical hit. If the defender survives, he must make a Fortitude save (DC 10 + damage dealt) or die.
It's overkill, but a rogue also gets her sneak attack damage bonus against a helpless foe when delivering a coup de grace.
Delivering a coup de grace provokes attacks of opportunity from threatening foes because it involves focused concentration and methodical action.
Creatures that are immune to critical hits do not take critical damage, nor do they need to make Fortitude saves to avoid being killed by a coup de grace.
Immobilized: An immobilized creature can attack and cast spells normally, but it cannot move from the square or squares that it is in. This condition does not prevent a creature from defending itself, nor does it cause a creature to lose its Dexterity bonus to Armor Class. Flying creatures that become immobilized in mid-flight can control their descent so that they do not take falling damage, but they are incapable of moving from their current square as long as the effect ends and automatically descend at a rate of 20 feet per round. Flying creatures with the ability to hover can maintain their initial altitude if they choose.
Incapacitated: Characters who are incapacitated are treated as helpless.
Incorporeal: Having no physical body Incorporeal creatures are immune to all nonmagical attack forms. They can be harmed only by other incorporeal creatures, +1 or better magical weapons, spells, spell-like effects, or supernatural effects. (See Incorporeality.)
Invisible: Visually undetectable. Invisible creatures gain a +2 bonus to attack rolls and negate Dexterity bonuses to their opponents' AC. (See Invisibility.)
Knocked Down: Depending on their size, creatures can be knocked down by winds of high velocity (see Wind Effects). Creatures on the ground are knocked prone by the force of the wind. Flying creatures are instead blown back 1d6x10 feet.
Nauseated: Experiencing stomach distress. Nauseated creatures are unable to attack, cast spells, concentrate on spells, or do anything else requiring attention. The only action such a character can take is a single move (or move-equivalent action) per turn.
Normal: The character is unharmed (except, possibly for hit points that have been lost) and unafflicted. She acts normally.
Panicked: A panicked creature suffers a -2 morale penalty on saving throws and must flee. A panicked creature has a 50% chance to drop what he's holding, chooses his path randomly (as long as he is getting away from immediate danger), and flees any other dangers that confront him. If cornered, a panicked creature cowers. A creature may use a special ability or spell to escape; being panicked, for example, doesn't prevent a wizard from teleporting away
Panicked is a more extreme state of fear than shaken or frightened.
Paralyzed: A paralyzed character stands rigid and helpless, unable to move or act physically He has effective Strength and Dexterity scores of 0 but may take purely mental actions.
Petrified: A petrified character is not dead as long as a majority of his body remains intact. He cannot move or take actions of any kind, nor even purely mental ones. His Strength and Dexterity scores are effectively (but not actually) 0. He is unaware of what occurs around him, since all of his senses have ceased operating. If a petrified character cracks or breaks but the broken pieces are joined with him as he returns to flesh, he is unharmed. If the character's petrified body is incomplete when it returns to flesh, the body is likewise incomplete.
Pinned: Held immobile (but not helpless) in a grapple.
Prone: The character is on the ground. He suffers a -4 penalty on melee attack rolls, and the only ranged weapon he can effectively use is a crossbow, which he may use without penalty. Opponents receive +4 bonuses on melee attack against him but -4 penalties on ranged attacks. Standing up is a move-equivalent action.
Shaken: A shaken character suffers a -2 morale penalty on attack rolls, weapon damage rolls, and saving throws.
Shaken is a less severe fear condition than frightened or panicked.
Stable: A character who was dying but who has stabilized and still has negative hit points is stable. The character is no longer dying, but is still unconscious. If the character has become stable because of aid from another character (such as the Heal skill or magical healing), then the character no longer loses hit points. He has a 10% chance each hour to become conscious and be disabled (even though his hit points are still negative).
If the character stabilized on his own and hasn't had help, he is still at risk of losing hit points. Each hour, he has a 10% chance to become conscious and be disabled. Otherwise he loses 1 hit point.
Staggered: A character whose subdual damage exactly equals his current hit points is staggered. He so badly weakened or roughed up that he can only take a partial action when he would normally be able to take a standard action.
Stunned: The character loses her Dexterity bonus to AC (if any) and can take no actions. Foes gain a +2 bonus to hit stunned characters.
Turned: Affected by a turn undead attempt. Turned undead flee for 10 rounds (1 minute) by the best and fastest means available to them. If they cannot flee, they cower.
Unconscious: Knocked out and helpless. Unconsciousness can result from having current hit points between -1 and -9, or from subdual damage in excess of current hit points.